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The Sutta Pitaka


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The Anguttara Nikaya

The "Further-factored" Discourses

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Anana Sutta -- Debtless 

Ahina Sutta -- By a Snake 

Sappurisa Sutta -- A Person of Integrity 

Acintita Sutta -- Unconjecturable 

Vanijja Sutta -- Trade 

Tamonata Sutta -- Darkness 

Samadhi Sutta -- Concentration (Tranquillity and Insight) 

Chavalata Sutta -- The Firebrand Raga-vinaya Sutta -- The Subduing of Passion 

Valahaka Sutta -- Thunderheads 

Kesi Sutta -- To Kesi the Horse Trainer

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.62

Anana Sutta(^)

Debtless

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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Then Anathapindika the householder went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there the Blessed One said to him: "There are these four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder enjoying the pleasures of the senses. Which four? The bliss of having, the bliss of [making use of] wealth, the bliss of debtlessness, the bliss of blamelessness.

"And what is the bliss of having? There is the case where the son of a good family has wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained. When he thinks, 'I have wealth earned through my efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, and piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth righteously gained,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of having.

"And what is the bliss of [making use of] wealth? There is the case where the son of a good family, using the wealth earned through his efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of his arm, and piled up through the sweat of his brow, righteous wealth righteously gained, partakes of his wealth and makes merit. When he thinks, 'Using the wealth earned through my efforts & enterprise, amassed through the strength of my arm, and piled up through the sweat of my brow, righteous wealth righteously gained, I partake of wealth and make merit,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of [making use of] wealth.

"And what is the bliss of debtlessness? There is the case where the son of a good family owes no debt, great or small, to anyone at all. When he thinks, 'I owe no debt, great or small, to anyone at all,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of debtlessness.

"And what is the bliss of blamelessness? There is the case where a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal kamma, blameless mental kamma. When he thinks, 'I am endowed with blameless bodily kamma, blameless verbal kamma, blameless mental kamma,' he experiences bliss, he experiences joy. This is called the bliss of blamelessness.

"These are the four kinds of bliss that can be attained in the proper season, on the proper occasions, by a householder enjoying the pleasures of the senses."

Knowing the bliss of debtlessness,
& recollecting the bliss of having,
enjoying the bliss of wealth, the mortal
then sees clearly with discernment.
Seeing clearly -- the wise one --
        he knows both sides:
that these are not worth one sixteenth-sixteenth
    of the bliss of blamelessness.

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.67

Ahina Sutta(^)

By a Snake

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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Translator's note: This is one of the few protective charms mentioned in the Pali Canon and specifically allowed by the Buddha for monks to use (another charm, also allowed to the monks, is contained in DN 32). Note that the power of the charm is said to come, not from the words, but from the mind of good will with which they are said. It thus differs from charms taught in later forms of Buddhism, where the words themselves are said to contain power.

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On one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. Now, at that time in Savatthi a certain monk had died after having been bitten by a snake. Then a large number of monks went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there they said to him, "Lord, just now in Savatthi a certain monk died after having been bitten by a snake."

"Then it's certain, monks, that that monk didn't suffuse the four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will. For if he had suffused the four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will, he would not have died after having been bitten by a snake. Which four? The Virupakkha royal snake lineage,[1] the Erapatha royal snake lineage, the Chabyaputta royal snake lineage, the Dark Gotamaka royal snake lineage. It's certain that that monk didn't suffuse these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will. For if he had suffused these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will, he would not have died after having been bitten by a snake. I allow you, monks, to suffuse these four royal snake lineages with a mind of good will for the sake of self-protection, self-guarding, self-preservation."

I have good will for the Virupakkhas,
    good will for the Erapathas,
    good will for the Chabyaputtas,
    good will for the Dark Gotamakas.

I have good will for footless beings,
    good will for two-footed beings,
    good will for four-footed beings,
    good will for many-footed beings.

May footless beings do me no harm.
May two-footed beings do me no harm.
May four-footed beings do me no harm.
May many-footed beings do me no harm.

May all creatures,
    all breathing things,
        all beings
    -- each & every one --
    meet with good fortune.
May none of them come to any evil.

Limitless is the Buddha,
limitless the Dhamma,
limitless the Sangha.
There is a limit to creeping things:
    snakes, scorpions, centipedes,
    spiders, lizards, & rats.
I have made this safeguard,
I have made this protection.
    May the beings depart.
I pay homage
to the Blessed One,
homage
to the seven
rightly self-awakened ones.[2]

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Notes

1. The Virupakkhas are the chiefs of the nagas, associated with the western quarter (see DN 20). The other royal lineages of snakes are nowhere else mentioned in the Pali Canon. The commentary to this discourse does not identify them. [Go back]

2. The seven most recent Buddhas, including "our" Buddha, are mentioned in DN 14 & DN 32: Vipassi, Sikhi, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Konagamana, Kassapa, and Gotama. It's noteworthy that the concept of the seven Buddhas is associated with protective charms. For example, the heart of the charm given in DN 32 is this:

Homage to Vipassi, possessed of vision & splendor.
Homage to Sikhi, sympathetic to all beings.
Homage to Vessabhu, cleansed, austere.
Homage to Kakusandha, crusher of Mara's host.
Homage to Konagamana, the Brahman who lived
            the life perfected.
Homage to Kassapa, entirely released.
Homage to Angirasa [Gotama],
        splendid son of the Sakyans,
        who taught this Dhamma:
        the dispelling of all stress & pain.
Those unbound in the world,
who have seen things as they are,
    great ones of gentle speech,
    thoroughly mature,
even they pay homage to Gotama,
    the benefit of human & heavenly beings,
    consummate in knowledge & conduct,
    the great one, thoroughly mature.
We revere the Buddha Gotama,
    consummate in knowledge & conduct.

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.73

Sappurisa Sutta(^)

A Person of Integrity

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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"Monks, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.' Which four?

"There is the case where a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points in full & in detail, without omission, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Then again, a person of no integrity, when unasked, reveals his own good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of no integrity.'

"Monks, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of no integrity.'

"Now, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of integrity.' Which four?

"There is the case where a person of integrity, when asked, does not reveal another person's bad points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's bad points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals another person's good points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of another person's good points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when unasked, reveals his own bad points, to say nothing of when asked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own bad points in full & in detail, without omissions, without holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Then again, a person of integrity, when asked, does not reveal his own good points, to say nothing of when unasked. Furthermore, when asked, when pressed with questions, he is one who speaks of his own good points not in full, not in detail, with omissions, holding back. Of this person you may know, 'This venerable one is a person of integrity.'

"Monks, a person endowed with these four qualities can be known as 'a person of integrity.'"

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.77

Acintita Sutta(^)

Unconjecturable

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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"There are these four unconjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them. Which four?

"The Buddha-range of the Buddhas [i.e., the range of powers a Buddha develops as a result of becoming a Buddha] is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

"The jhana-range of a person in jhana [i.e., the range of powers that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana]...

"The [precise working out of the] results of kamma...

"Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it.

"These are the four unconjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about them."

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.79

Vanijja Sutta(^)

Trade

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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Then Ven. Sariputta went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "What is the reason, lord, what is the cause why a certain trade, when engaged in by some people, turns out a failure? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended? What is the reason, what is the cause why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended?"

"There is the case, Sariputta, where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' But he doesn't give what he offered. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out a failure.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' But he gives him something other than what he intended by his offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out not as intended.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' He gives him what he intended by his offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out as intended.

"Then there is the case where a certain person, having gone to a priest or contemplative, makes him an offer: 'Tell me, sir, what you need in terms of the [four] requisites.' He gives him more than what he intended by his offer. If he passes away from there and comes here, then whatever trade he engages in, it turns out better than intended.

"This is the reason, Sariputta, this is the cause why a certain trade, when engaged in by some people, turns out a failure; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out not as intended; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out as intended; why the same sort of trade, when engaged in by other people, turns out better than intended."

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Anguttara Nikaya IV.85

Tamonata Sutta(^)

Darkness

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
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"There are these four types of people to be found existing in the world. Which four? One in darkness who is headed for darkness, one in darkness who is headed for light, one in light who is headed for darkness, and one in light who is headed for light.

"And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into a lowly family -- the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper -- a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for darkness.

"And how is one the type of person in darkness who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into a lower class family -- the family of a scavenger, a hunter, a basket-weaver, a wheelwright, or a sweeper -- a family that is poor, with little food or drink, living in hardship, where food & clothing are hard to come by. And he is ugly, misshapen, stunted, & sickly: half-blind or deformed or lame or crippled. He doesn't receive any [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, or vehicles; garlands, perfumes, or ointments; bedding, shelter, or lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in darkness who is headed for light.

"And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for darkness? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family -- a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family -- a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct. Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, & mental misconduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. This is the type of person in light who is headed for darkness.

"And how is one the type of person in light who is headed for light? There is the case where a person is born into an upper class family -- a noble warrior family, a priestly family, a prosperous householder family -- a family that is rich, with much wealth, with many possessions, with a great deal of money, a great many accoutrements of wealth, a great many commodities. And he is well-built, handsome, extremely inspiring, endowed with a lotus-like complexion. He receives [gifts of] food, drink, clothing, & vehicles; garlands, perfumes, & ointments; bedding, shelter, & lamps. He engages in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct. Having engaged in good bodily conduct, good verbal conduct, & good mental conduct, he -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- reappears in the good destination, the heavenly world. This is the type of person in light who is headed for light.

"These are the four types of people to be found existing in the world."

---o0o---

Anguttara Nikaya IV.94

Samadhi Sutta(^)

Concentration (Tranquillity and Insight)

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
---o0o---

"Monks, these four types of individuals are to be found existing in world. Which four?

"There is the case of the individual who has attained internal tranquillity of awareness, but not insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. Then there is the case of the individual who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, but not internal tranquillity of awareness. Then there is the case of the individual who has attained neither internal tranquillity of awareness nor insight into phenomena through heightened discernment. And then there is the case of the individual who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment.

"The individual who has attained internal tranquillity of awareness, but not insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, should approach an individual who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment and ask him: 'How should fabrications be regarded? How should they be investigated? How should they be seen with insight?' The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experienced: 'Fabrications should be regarded in this way. Fabrications should be investigated in this way. Fabrications should be seen in this way with insight.' Then eventually he [the first] will become one who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment.

"As for the individual who has attained insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, but not internal tranquillity of awareness, he should approach an individual who has attained internal tranquillity of awareness...and ask him, 'How should the mind be steadied? How should it be made to settle down? How should it be unified? How should it be concentrated?' The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experienced: 'The mind should be steadied in this way. The mind should be made to settle down in this way. The mind should be unified in this way. The mind should be concentrated in this way.' Then eventually he [the first] will become one who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment.

"As for the individual who has attained neither internal tranquillity of awareness nor insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, he should approach an individual who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment...and ask him, 'How should the mind be steadied? How should it be made to settle down? How should it be unified? How should it be concentrated? How should fabrications be regarded? How should they be investigated? How should they be seen with insight?' The other will answer in line with what he has seen & experienced: 'The mind should be steadied in this way. The mind should be made to settle down in this way. The mind should be unified in this way. The mind should be concentrated in this way. Fabrications should be regarded in this way. Fabrications should be investigated in this way. Fabrications should be seen in this way with insight.' Then eventually he [the first] will become one who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment.

"As for the individual who has attained both internal tranquillity of awareness & insight into phenomena through heightened discernment, his duty is to make an effort in establishing ('tuning') those very same skillful qualities to a higher degree for the ending of the (mental) fermentations.

"These are four types of individuals to be found existing in world."

---o0o---

Anguttara Nikaya IV.95

Chavalata Sutta(^)

The Firebrand

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
---o0o---

"Monks, these four types of individuals are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own. The one who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. The one who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.

"Just as a firebrand from a funeral pyre -- burning at both ends, covered with excrement in the middle -- is used as fuel neither in a village nor in the wilderness: I tell you that this is a simile for the individual who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others. The individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own is the higher & more refined of these two. The individual who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others is the highest & most refined of these three. The individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others is, of these four, the foremost, the chief, the most outstanding, the highest, & supreme. Just as from a cow comes milk; from milk, curds; from curds, butter; from butter, ghee; from ghee, the skimmings of ghee; and of these, the skimmings of ghee are reckoned the foremost -- in the same way, of these four, the individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of other is the foremost, the chief, the most outstanding, the highest, & supreme.

"These are the four types of individuals to be found existing in the world."

---o0o---

Anguttara Nikaya IV.96

Raga-vinaya Sutta(^)

The Subduing of Passion

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
---o0o---

"Monks, these four types of individuals are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others. The one who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own. The one who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others. The one who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual practices for the subduing of passion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of passion; practices for the subduing of aversion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him/herself but doesn't encourage others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit but not for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own? There is the case where a certain individual doesn't practice for the subduing of passion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of passion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of aversion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of aversion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of delusion within him/herself but encourages others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for the benefit of others but not for his/her own.

"And who is the individual who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual doesn't practice for the subduing of passion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of passion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of aversion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of aversion; he/she doesn't practice for the subduing of delusion within him/herself and doesn't encourage others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices neither for his/her own benefit nor for that of others.

"And who is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others? There is the case where a certain individual practices for the subduing of passion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of passion; practices for the subduing of aversion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of aversion; practices for the subduing of delusion within him/herself and encourages others in the subduing of delusion. Such is the individual who practices for his/her own benefit and for that of others.

"These are the four types of individuals to be found existing in the world."

---o0o---

Anguttara Nikaya IV.102

Valahaka Sutta(^)

Thunderheads

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
---o0o---

"There are these four types of thunderheads. Which four? One that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither thunders nor rains, and one that both thunders and rains. These are the four types of thunderheads.

"In the same way, these four types of persons resembling thunderheads are to be found existing in the world. Which four? The one that thunders but doesn't rain, the one that rains but doesn't thunder, the one that neither thunders nor rains, and the one that both thunders and rains.

"And how is one the type of person who thunders but doesn't rain? There is the case where a person has mastered the Dhamma: dialogues, narratives of mixed prose and verse, explanations, verses, spontaneous exclamations, quotations, birth stories, amazing events, question & answer sessions [the earliest classifications of the Buddha's teachings]. Yet he doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the origination of stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the cessation of stress.' He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who thunders but doesn't rain. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that thunders but doesn't rain.

"And how is one the type of person who rains but doesn't thunder? There is the case where a person has not mastered the Dhamma: dialogues...question & answer sessions. Yet he does discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the origination of stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the cessation of stress.' He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who rains but doesn't thunder. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that rains but doesn't thunder.

"And how is one the type of person who neither thunders nor rains? There is the case where a person has not mastered the Dhamma: dialogues...question & answer sessions. He doesn't discern, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress'...'This is the origination of stress'...'This is the cessation of stress'...'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who neither thunders nor rains. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that neither thunders nor rains.

"And how is one the type of person who both thunders and rains? There is the case where a person has mastered the Dhamma: dialogues...question & answer sessions. He discerns, as it actually is present, that 'This is stress'...'This is the origination of stress'...'This is the cessation of stress'...'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.' This is the type of person who both thunders and rains. This type of person, I tell you, is like the thunderhead that both thunders and rains.

"There are these four types of people to be found existing in the world."

---o0o---

Anguttara Nikaya IV.111

Kesi Sutta(^)

To Kesi the Horsetrainer

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
---o0o---

Then Kesi the horsetrainer went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him: "You, Kesi, are a trained man, a trainer of tamable horses. And how do you train a tamable horse?"

"Lord, I train a tamable horse [sometimes] with mildness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both mildness & harshness."

"And if a tamable horse does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, Kesi, what do you do?"

"If a tamable horse does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild and harsh training, lord, then I kill it. Why is that? [I think:] 'Don't let this be a disgrace to my lineage of teachers.' But the Blessed One, lord, is the unexcelled trainer of tamable people. How do you train a tamable person?"

"Kesi, I train a tamable person [sometimes] with mildness, [sometimes] with harshness, [sometimes] with both mildness & harshness.

"In using mildness, [I teach:] 'Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such are the devas. Such are human beings.'

"In using harshness, [I teach:] 'Such is bodily misconduct. Such is the result of bodily misconduct. Such is verbal misconduct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades.'

"In using mildness & harshness, [I teach:] 'Such is good bodily conduct. Such is the result of good bodily conduct. Such is bodily misconduct. Such is the result of bodily misconduct. Such is good verbal conduct. Such is the result of good verbal conduct. Such is verbal misconduct. Such is the result of verbal misconduct. Such is good mental conduct. Such is the result of good mental conduct. Such is mental misconduct. Such is the result of mental misconduct. Such are the devas. Such are human beings. Such is hell. Such is the animal womb. Such the realm of the hungry shades.'"

"And if a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, what do you do?"

"If a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then I kill him, Kesi."

"But it's not proper for our Blessed One to take life! And yet the Blessed One just said, 'I kill him, Kesi.'"

"It is true, Kesi, that it's not proper for a Tathagata to take life. But if a tamable person does not submit either to a mild training or to a harsh training or to a mild & harsh training, then the Tathagata does not regard him as being worth speaking to or admonishing. His knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard him as being worth speaking to or admonishing. This is what it means to be totally destroyed in the Doctrine & Discipline, when the Tathagata does not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one's knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing."

"Yes, lord, wouldn't one be totally destroyed if the Tathagata does not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing, and one's knowledgeable fellows in the holy life do not regard one as being worth speaking to or admonishing.

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

 

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